Thursday, February 25, 2010


Pure spinel is white, but impurities often give it a wide range of colors. Spinel is available in many colors like, yellow, brown, black and violet. The name Spinel is derived from a Latin word meaning `thorn` for which the shape of this gemstone might be held responsible.

Almost all the colors of spinal are used in jewelry, but the most valuable and popular color is the deep red. These red gems closely resemble rubies, and the two may be difficult to distinguish. In fact, until the late 19th century, there was no distinction between ruby and red spinel, as they look identical and are found in the same localities. Nowadays, distinctions can be made through hardness and x-ray tests. Many famous old `rubies` were found to be Spinel. The enormous `ruby` that forms the centerpiece of the royal crown of England was determined to be spinel as well. Spinel is easily synthesized, and can be made into any color by adding impurities. It is made to resemble gems such as diamond, sapphire, and zircon. When purchasing spinel gems, one must be careful to make sure that the spinel is natural and not synthetic. Most colorless spinels on the market are synthetic, as are some red ones. Spinel is usually cut into gems for use as jewelry. The deep-red variety is known as ruby spinel. This is the most prized form. The opaque, black variety, known as pleonast, is perhaps the most popular black gemstone. Spinel is also cut as cabochons, and occasionally exhibits weak asterism.

Spinel naturally occurs as octahedral crystals. In well-shaped red crystals, the gem cutter may decide to even out the crystal, making it a perfect octahedron. These `crystals` may be worn in jewelry without any further faceting.

Imperial State Crown  of England
Spinel has a very bad reputation of deceiving people as rubies for centuries. Many royal famous ornaments are mistaken to be studded with real rubies when Spinels were actually used. The most famous `Black Princes` ruby, that decorates the Imperial State Crown of England actually bears a 170 carat red Spinel. In the 16th century Spinel gained its individual status as a gemstone in Asia.

There are different varieties of the Spinel. The names can be mentioned as Ruby Spinel i.e. ruby-red variety of Spinel, Rubicelle is the other variety, which is yellow to orange variety of Spinel, Balas Ruby is the pink to pale red variety of Spinel, Almandine Spinel is the violet variety of Spinel. Blue Spinel can be mentioned as the light to dark blue variety of Spinel while Pleonast is the black variety of Spinel, Picotite is the brown variety of Spinel, Gahnite or Gahnospinel is the greenish or bluish i.e. zinc-rich variety of Spinel. Sapphire Spinel is the false name describing blue spinel as well.

There are also some synonyms of Spinel that can be mentioned as Spinell is a synonym of spinel, Spinel ruby is a synonym of ruby spinel, Piconite is a synonym of picotite, Flame Spinel is a synonym of rubicelle, and Pleonaste is a synonym of pleonast

Pinkish red transparent gemstone is the jewelers and collectors most favored item for centuries. Its durability and hardness are perfect for its usage in jewelry making. Spinel is often found in oval, round and cushion shaped. The features of spinel like isometric crystal system, unclear cleavage, glassy luster and white streaks are essential part of the stone. This gemstone was formed after a basic rock in the earth`s crust had gone through a metamorphic change. The top layer of the earth`s crust is where the Spinel is mostly found like in the gemstone bearing gravels and in the lime stones.

Burma, Sri Lanka, Tanzania and some parts of Western Europe are the places where Spinel is found the most. Spinel has become very rare these days and because of this reason its demand is decreasing day by day as people hardly get a chance to see and appreciate the magnificent stone.


Topaz is an aluminum fluorite silicate containing fluorine. It is one of the few gem minerals, which, under suitable conditions, grow into enormous crystals. Topaz typically occurs in cavities in rhyolites and granite. It also occurs in pegmatite dikes, and in high-temperature veins with cassiterite and tourmaline. The stone is transparent with a vitreous luster. The name topaz is derived from the Indian Sanskrit word tapas, meaning fire. According to another theory topaz derives its name from the Island of Topazos, in the Red Sea, where the Romans obtained a stone, which they called by this name, but which was the modern chrysolite or peridot.

It is believed that the topaz of modern mineralogists was unknown to the ancients and that the stone called topazos was the mineral chrysolite or peridot. In ancient times, a figure of a falcon carved on a Topaz was thought to help earn the goodwill of kings, princes and magnates. Topaz is Stone of Strength noted by Greeks. During medieval days it was thought to heal physical and mental disorders as well as prevent death. In 1750 a Parisian jeweler discovered that the yellow Brazilian topaz becomes pink on exposure to a moderate heat, and this treatment has since been extensively applied, so that nearly all the pink topaz occurring in jewelry has been heat-treated. Such `burnt topaz` is often known as Brazilian ruby, as is the very rare, natural red topaz.

The Egyptians said that Topaz gemstone was colored with the golden glow of their mighty sun god `Ra`. This made Topaz a very powerful amulet that protected the faithful against harm. The Romans associated Topaz gemstones with Jupiter, who also is the god of the sun. A Topaz gemstone sometimes has the amber gold of fine cognac or the blush of a peach and all the beautiful warm browns and oranges in between. Some rare and exceptional Topazes are pale pink to a sherry red.

Topaz, gemstone
Colour: Pure topaz is colorless, but it also occurs in a broad range of colors. The range started from yellow, blue, pink, peach, gold, green, red, and brown. Some natural yellow stones are heated to become permanently pink i.e. pinked topaz. The golden glow of late afternoon, the reddish orange of sunset and the pink of dawn`s first light, these can be explained as the colors of Topaz. This is a gem with the warm tones of the sun. Like the sun, topaz is flattering to the skin, lighting up the face with a golden glow that enhances every color with great aptitude. All of these colors are known as precious Topaz. Blue Topaz, a popular affordable gem, has an enhanced color. Topaz with a natural blue color is very rare. Topaz along with citrine is birthstones of Scorpion. The time ranges from Oct 24 - Nov 21. Topaz is the anniversary gemstone for the 4th and 19th year of marriage. Imperial topaz is the anniversary gemstone for the 23rd year of marriage.

There are some varieties of Topaz and nothing compares to the sparkling brilliance of Blue Topaz. Orange-red Imperial Topaz is also rare. Precious topaz is most often found in a scissors cut, a rectangular gem cut with curved sides that has triangular facets. Ovals, cushions, and emerald cuts are also available.

Topaz has a hardness of 8. So Topaz should always be kept in separate boxes to protect other jewelry from scratches. Large temperature changes should also be avoided. Topaz often becomes paler if kept out in the sun. Topaz should not be cleaned in a home ultrasonic cleaner. The best way to clean topaz is using toothbrush in warm soapy water to scrub behind the stone where dust can be collected.

Topaz Pendant
Topaz looks beautiful in rings, bracelets, necklaces, and pendants. Blue Topaz is available in a variety of shades, sizes and shapes. Red and intense pink are the most rare and most desirable colors for topaz as well. Pure topaz when brilliantly cut, they are mistaken even for diamond.

Topaz is a stone of strength. Topaz stimulates an endocrine system. It assists in general tissue regeneration. Topaz is valuable in the treatment of hemorrhages. It also increases poor appetite and helps fighting blood disorders. Topaz balances emotions and calms passions. It releases tension and gives feelings of joy. Topaz is also known as spiritual rejuvenation gemstone. Topaz is a very hard gemstone but it can be split with a single blow, a trait it shares with Diamond. As a result it should be protected from hard knocks. Topaz gemstones should be worn only if one wishes to be clear-sighted. As legend has it Topaz dispels all enchantment and helps to improve eyesight as well. Some persons believed that these gemstones had the power to increase strength and make its wearer invisible in times of emergency. Topaz gemstone was also said to change color in the presence of poisoned food or drink. Its mystical curative powers waxed and waned with the phases of the moon. It was said to cure insomnia, asthma, and hemorrhages in a great manner.

In mysticism, the topaz is attributed with a cooling, styptic and appetizing effect. It is said to dispel sadness, anger and nocturnal fears, to warn its wearer of poisons and protect him or her from sudden death. It is reputed to make men handsome and intelligent and sterile women fertile and happy. However, it is probably better not to rely too much on its magical powers. It was also claimed that one could immerse the hand in boiling water after a topaz had been thrown into it and retract it again unharmed. In the Empire style, the topaz was still widespread, but then the more reasonably priced citrine took over from it and even usurped its name i.e. gold topaz. Since then, the topaz has been a rather exotic figure in the jewellery trade, and has been given the additional predicate `pure` to make it clear that the topaz, not the quartz topaz, is meant. And it is still waiting for its well-deserved comeback to this day.

Sunday, February 21, 2010


Carnelian is a variety of chalcedony and is microcrystalline quartz. It appears in a vibrant range of fire-orange reds to brown-reds and has a dull, waxy luster. Carnelian was once thought to still the blood and calm the temper. The best Carnelian can be found in India. India is the place where from the stone originates. The name Carnelian is derived from Carne. In Latin this means flesh, may be related to its color, which is similar the color of flesh. Carnelian is composed of Silicon Dioxide, Sio2, and gets its red color from Hematite impurities.

Carnelian, GemstonesThis is a translucent gemstone that varies in color from orange to reddish orange. There is also a dark brownish orange shade of carnelian that is very suitable for men`s rings. The gemstone is normally cut in a smooth cut. Oval shaped carnelian gemstones can be found to be the most common shape. Carnelian gemstones are used in gold and silver jewelry. The gemstone is very suitable for jewelry making and has a hardness of 7 on the Moh`s scale that measures the hardness of gemstones. Carnelian belongs to the quartz family of gems and is also referred to by other trade names like, red chalcedony and red agate.

Carnelian is believed to protect from those persons trying to read the mind. It also protects from nightmares, enchantments, as well as guarding the home against lightning strikes and severe storms. These days, carnelian is thought to enhance self esteem, to combat feelings of inadequacy, and to increase physical energy. It is sometimes used as a talisman to protect against fire and misfortune. Carnelian is an important gemstone in opening a closed 2nd Chakra or sacral. Natural healers use Carnelian to quell anger, jealousy and hateful feelings, clear negative energy and sorrow. Carnelian protects against rage and fear. It increases sexuality and sexual desire and promotes courage and confidence as well. Carnelian is associated with the solar plexus chakra i.e. the yellow chakra, in which imbalances are thought to cause digestive problems, as well as lack of confidence. Carnelian is useful for preventing fevers. It has the ability to increase the strength and glibness of speech. It is useful for blood problems. An amulet with a rich man holding some beautiful object, carved of carnelian, is said to be powerful in staunching the flow of blood. Carnelian balances creativity and mental processes. Carnelian is the carrier of the orange ray. It is useful for wheezing from allergies. Natural carnelian is available is bright orange colour. If natural gemstone is not available, man-made carnelian can also be used. Every time after wearing carnelian it should be properly washed under water.

It has been said to be a healing gem with a wondrous capacity for mental and physical healing properties. Carnelian can assist in getting the mind out of mental ruts and back on track for success. It bolsters up ambition and drive and reminds the wearer of the future`s goals, hence becoming a powerful tool in major decision-making. The stone allows the person to take control of the life and make decisions. It brings energy and fire, enhancing physical energy and personal power and invoking joy, laughter and warmth as it opens the heart. It provides a sense of history and a connection to past experiences.